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Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1: Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Switches, Encoders, Relays, Transistors
Want to know how to use an electronic component? This first book of a three-volume set includes key information on electronics parts for your projects—complete with photographs, schematics, and diagrams. You’ll learn what each one does, how it works, why it’s useful, and what variants exist. No matter how much you know about electronics, you’ll find fascinating details you’ve never come across before.
Convenient, concise, well-organized, and precise
Perfect for teachers, hobbyists, engineers, and students of all ages, this reference puts reliable, fact-checked information right at your fingertips—whether you’re refreshing your memory or exploring a component for the first time. Beginners will quickly grasp important concepts, and more experienced users will find the specific details their projects require.
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a.churchouse asked Explain the following terms: Right-Right Failure, Graceful degredation, resilience and Fail Safe?
In the subject of Railway signalling!
And got the following answer:
#All terms are related to safety and integrity of railway signalling . Principles of safety and high integrity systems as applied to a railway signalling system: Signalling system lifecycles: design; construction; commissioning; life span of equipment; maintenance; repair; operation; decommissioning. High-integrity systems: principles eg fail-safe, wrong-side, right-side, failures, resilience, graceful degradation; components of signalling system eg control circuitry (logic control and computing systems), lamps/bulbs, relays. Application of principles throughout lifecycle: reliability, availability,maintainability and safety (RAMS); concept of redundancy; inherent safety characteristics; independent checks. *Fail-Safe: A control operation or function that prevents improper system functioning or catastrophic degradation in the event of circuit malfunction or operator error; for example, the failsafe track circuit used to control railway block signals. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fail-safe *Graceful degradation: Fault-tolerance or graceful degradation is the property that enables a system (often computer-based) to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decreases at all, the decrease is proportional to the severity of the failure, as compared to a naively-designed system in which even a small failure can cause total breakdown. Fault-tolerance is particularly sought-after in high-availability or life-critical systems. *http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/pdf/rspg-2d-signlng.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_tracks *Railway traffic is controlled using three basic control elements namely: track circuits to indicate the position of trains, signals to govern the speed of trains and points to control the path of trains. These three elements are found in systems in which trains are both manually and automatically operated. Whilst failures are inevitable great emphasis has always been placed on ensuring that, as far as possible, any failed control element fails to a safe state, i.e. a right side failure, even so wrong side failures remain possible occurrences. With conventional electronic or electrical railway control systems failures are usually only detected when an attempt is made to change the state or position of a control element. Thus, if a failure occurs in a section of track not frequently used the failure may remain undetected for some time, for example on a track normally used by passenger traffic a fault occurring during late evening might not be detected until next morning. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4270715.html
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