Effective solid state relay tutorial for High-Risk Applications
Reliable solid state relay tutorial Designs for Industrial and Industrial Applications
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solid state relay tutorials
solid state relay tutorials
solid state relay tutorials
This is a 5V 8-Channel Relay interface board, Be able to control various appliances, and other equipments with large current. It can be controlled directly by Microcontroller(Arduino , 8051, AVR, PIC, DSP, ARM, ARM, MSP430, TTL logic).
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Chicka Chicka Boom Boom asked Does anyone have advice or tips on putting together a Tesla coil?
And got the following answer:
I based this tutorial off of my own experiences building my small tesla coil (battery-powered). I have tried to include information necessary for understanding operation and troubleshooting. Tesla coils are air-cored resonant transformers. “Transformer” basically means that there are two circuits: A primary and a secondary circuit. The purpose of the primary circuit is to build up a strong magnetic field in a coil of wire that is attached to a circuit. It then cuts off the power to the coil, which causes the electromagnetic field to collapse. The secondary circuit has a special coil, too, which is positioned in the center of the primary coil to “catch” the collapsing magnetic field. But because of Faraday’s Law of Induction, the collapsing field from the primary coil induces current into the secondary coil that ends up being a higher voltage than the original primary circuit. “Air-Cored” means that there is no actual electrical connection between the two circuits; energy is transferred between the two coils via EM waves “resonant” means that, under ideal conditions, the two coils will begin to interact with each other and exchange EM waves at the same frequency, leading to constructive interference and ultimately higher output. It is rare that a homemade coil is able to do this. Here are the parts of both circuits and how they are made: #####The primary circuit##### Primary transformer — This is the power source of the system. It usually is a large wall-plug transformer that generates high voltage at a high current. Because it is a transformer, it is essentially a mini-tesla coil in itself. This is a part that you cannot make; you must buy it. Possible sources include the transformers used in neon signs, as well as DC ignition coils with special circuitry attached to pulse them (Neon sign transformers run on AC and thus are already pulsing). If you buy an NST (Neon Sign Transformer), make sure that you purchase an older model that is filled with tar and that is not solid state (ask the guy at the sign store if he has obsolete transformer in the back). A solid state, newer NST will not reach the levels necessary for the coil. If you want to build a smaller coil like I did, use a DC ignition coil being run from a car battery and pulsed with a relay. A very simple circuit (no soldering required) can be found in my sources section). Capacitors --- These are, basically, plates of conducting material separated by a dielectric (insulator). They are wired in series with the transformer. When current runs into these, they are able to store up the charge in their plates through an electric field that runs through the dielectric. Capacitors are, in themselves, a project to be taken on and so I cannot go into extreme detail of their design here. Tesla coils require very strong capacitors that usually need to be built. Try researching “Leyden Jars” to get an idea of a basic capacitor design. Spark Gap --- This is an air gap connected in a parallel circuit to the primary transformer. Once the capacitors have fully charged up, they have built up enough vltage to be able to jump the break in the circuit here. On tesla coils, the capacitors will charge and discharge across the spark gap thousands of times each second. Primary Coil --- When the capacitors discharge across the spark gap, they momentarily complete a break in the circuit that allows power to flow into this coil. The coil consists of around ten turns of barely insulated heavy gauge copper wire. The coil is wound with a very large diameter (mine is 6 in.) and has supports to keep its shape, but it usually has no inner coil form. #####The secondary circuit#### Secondary coil --- This is another coil that consists of around a thousand turns of very fine gauge copper wire. It usually must be wound around a coil form (I use PVC pipe) and then insulated with enamel or varnish. It is placed in the center of the primary coil, but it is not electrically connected to it or any other part of the primary circuit. The two coils must be wound in the same direction. RF ground --- This is the bottom end of the secondary coil. This wire is grounded to insure that high voltages do not hit the primary coil. Topload --- This is electrically attached to the top end of the secondary coil. It is usually a low-resistance, round metal object that allow spark to fly easily from it. It is optional, since sparks can just jump from the top wire. Review So, here is my best way to sum up how this all works: Power is applied to the system by the primary transformer. This voltage, although high, is not nearly enough to jump the spark gap so that it can get to the primary coil. Instead, the only place that it can go is to the capacitors, where it builds up until it is able to jump the gap and run through the primary coil. When the power runs through the primary coil, it sets up a magnetic field inside the coil. But, since the spark has to go out, this field soon collapses. But the secondary coil is positioned to “catch” this EM wave as it moves inwards. The secondary coil is designed to convert the EM energy back into electricity, which causes current to flow though the second circuit and create the HV output. Repeat process a thousand times a second. The reason that the output of the secondary is greater than the output of the primary circuit is because the secondary coil has so many more turns than the primary coil. If the primary coil has 10 turns, and the secondary coil has 1000 turns (which is 100x as many), then the voltage flowing in the primary circuit will be multiplied by 100x when it reaches the secondary circuit. Basic DC ignition coil circuit: http://www.geocities.com/mistertippy/schematics/ignition.html A few good amateur coil sites: http://www.altair.org/tesla.html http://amasci.com/tesla/tesla.html This is a version of the circuit I described. The left side (where it says AC mains and leads into a coil) is the NST or ignition circuit. Completely ignore that part, that’s what you bought with the NST or ignition coil. The circuit above is the right side, with the capacitors and the spark gap in parallel and series, respectively. Connect the hv leads from your Neon sign transformer or ignition coil to where the HV transformer leads in the picture indicate: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/90/TCOIL4.png/222px-TCOIL4.png Basic Electronics symbols: http://www.geocities.com/talkingelectronics/Circuit_Symbols.html
The solid state relay tutorial function really effectively with distinctive applications that are particular to energy distribution and protection. The relays include wide adjustment ranges using a scale which is easy to study either in 3 or 4 digits according to the model. These solid state relay tutorial enable in escalating the flexibility in the applications, reduce the all round energy and maintenance charges. There are relays that are used for basic purposes which come in reliable designs with fast replacement alternatives. And there are models which might be used for industrial applications and heavier duty applications that function on big loads. These solutions are produced to meet the lifetime industrial manage requirements from the applications.
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